The purpose of a Title Search is to identify the proper owner and to verify any liens, judgments, tax lines, bankruptcy and probate issues that can affect the title in the future. It is not a guarantee of title. It is simply a summary of any recorded claims that affect the title to the property in question.
Records searched for include documents, liens, utility assessments, usual and special taxes and levies, judgments and anything else that has been recorded about the property that may affect the new buyer’s ownership of the property in the future. Ideally the title search will reveal any problems that might arise so they may be dealt with immediately and the title cleared for purchase.
No record system is infallible and it might be that some defects in the title remain unrecorded and therefore undiscovered until after the purchase has gone through. Such problems could be an unsatisfied contractor's lien, an unresolved boundary dispute, a code violation from a past remodeling, or a myriad of other flaws, simple or complex, that can arise to cause problems for the new owner in the future.